Should be Reading. Anyone can play along! Just do the following:
1. Grab your current read
2. Open to a random page
3. Share two (2) “teaser” sentences from somewhere on that page
4. BE CAREFUL NOT TO INCLUDE SPOILERS! (make sure that what you share doesn’t give too much away! You don’t want to ruin the book for others!)
5. Share the title & author, too, so that other TT participants can add the book to their TBR Lists if they like your teasers!
Today's teaser is from Asimov's Mysteries, by Isaac Asimov.
"'I am told that when Mandel adjusted the polarizer in Villiers' room, you screamed at the sunlight. Was that your ingrained fear of the Mercurian Sun, or your sudden realization of what sunlight meant to your plans?'" p. 83
At first, Indian Reserve was the name of the entire area west of the Appalachian Mountains. The British had set this space aside, intending the east coast to be where settlers established themselves. After the Revolutionary War, this land area was shrunk down to the area west of the Mississippi River; settlers needed more land.
In 1830, the Indian Removal Act, set forth by president Andrew Jackson, insured that the government had the power they needed to move those Natives remaining east of the Mississippi, either through coercion or force. They typically made offers of land and cash, getting tribal leaders to sign whatever treaty it was that would move their particular tribe. Of course, once they got there, they discovered they had been duped, finding themselves on whatever land had the least value to the U.S. government and its settlers.
As of 1828, Indian Territory covered Oklahoma, Kansas, Iowa and Nebraska, which also happened to be an integral portion of the Old West. However, despite the term "territory" being in the title, it was not treated as a legal territory, meaning they had no rights to protect their new lands. Instead, settlers of the area could outline a new territory they wished to establish (for instance, Kansas Territory), and get it legally defined as a new territory of the United States, further encroaching on Native lands. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 took the remaining areas outside of present-day Oklahoma away from the Natives living there, sqaushing Indian Territory down to one portion of present-day Oklahoma, next to Oklahoma Territory.
When the Civil War began, many Natives fought on the side of the Confederacy, which further wounded them at the end of the war. A law was passed in 1862 that allowed the U.S. government to break treaties with any Indian tribes that had fought with the Confederacy. The U.S. government took this opportunity to stop following the concept of Indian Removal, instead moving on to Assimilation (anybody else imagining the U.S. government as the Borg right now??). While this policy of Assimilation paved the way for land allotments, it also shrunk the area of Indian Territory. Adding insult to injury, more tribes were moved into Indian Territory from the plains.
In 1905, the Native population of Indian Territory tried to be legally entered into the union as the state of Sequoyah. When this failed, Oklahoma was instead admitted as one state, in entirety, in 1907. Indian Territory was no more.
On a side note, my great-grandparents could not legally marry in Indian Territory, so they had to go out into a bordering river to be married on a boat, in order for their marriage to be legal and valid.
What are you reading? How do you feel about the treatment of Native Americans during Removal and Assimilation?
May you find your Muse.
*Letter I courtesy of Tim at clker.com
**Unorganized Territory, i.e. Indian Territory, 1853, By Made by User:Golbez. (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons
***Oklahoma & Indian Territory, 1892, Wikimedia Commons, attribution unclear
****Texas & Indian Territory, 1876, By Frank A. Gray [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons